Current Western NC Orchard Pest Populations

We track local insect populations throughout the growing season using a system of traps, temperature-recording devices, and degree-day models. Traps and weather data are checked weekly, with results updated by Wednesday afternoon from April through September. Learn more about southeastern apple pests at the Apple Pest Management page.


Weekly summary

May 23, 2016

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As of May 24, codling moth DD accumulations in Henderson County averaged about 437, which coincide with about 15% egg hatch of the first generation.  Based on weather forecasts, codling moth will remain a concern for at least the next 10 to 14 days.

Tufted apple budmoth DD accumulations in Henderson County averaged about 540 as of May 24.  Excellent control of TABM with a single insecticide application can be achieved between 800 and 1000 DD after biofix.  Based on weather forecasts, 800 DD should occur later next week.

Off the mountain in Polk, Cleveland, and Lincoln Counties, as well as the Morganton area, codling moth DD accumulations averaged about 630 DD as of May 24.  Based on weather conditions, these areas should have greatly reduced first generation codling moth activity by next week.

One sporadic pest whose occurrence is difficult to predict is the Comstock mealy bug.  Mealy bugs develop in the calyx end of the apple and can be a concern for fresh market fruit.  About 10 years ago we conducted tests with bugs from an infested orchard and found that Assail was one of the more effective insecticides against this pest, and third cover was the optimum timing. In those few orchards where this insect is a concern, an application of Assail may be considered at this time.

Archived Pest Reports for 2016


2016 Average Weekly Trap Captures*

HENDERSON COUNTY
Insects per trap
May 9
May 16
May 23
Codling Moth
5.0
5.0
7.0
Oriental Fruit Moth
3.5
3.0
0.3
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
1.0
8.0
3.0
Redbanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
0.0
Obliquebanded Leafroller
0.0
0.0
2.0
Lesser Appleworm
0.0
0.0
0.0
Apple Maggot
0.0
0.0
0.0
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
0.0
0.0
0.0
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2.0
1.0
0.0
Dogwood Borer
8.0
14.0
0.0
Peachtree Borer
0.0
2.0
3.0
Lesser Peachtree Borer
50.0
54.5
13.5
San Jose Scale
0.0
0.0
0.0
*Note that averages presented here are intended only to illustrate the timing of insect emergence and fluctuations in population activity, and not as general indicators of population levels. Some orchards included in these averages have significantly higher or lower populations than most commercial orchards in the area, resulting in averages that are sometimes skewed from what is typical. The only way to have an accurate assessment of an individual orchard’s populations is to set up traps in that orchard.

2016 Accumulated Degree Days


Henderson County
 Biofix
May 9
May 16
May 23
Codling Moth
April 15
265
352
425
Oriental Fruit Moth
March 21
565
684
790
Tufted Apple Bud Moth
April 20
296
415
520
About degree-day models:The degree day (DD) models predict adult emergence and egg hatch of each generation. They do not predict the intensity of populations, which can be assessed by using pheromone traps. Hence, the models should be used to help gauge the time period when control is most likely needed, and pheromone traps provide information on the need for and frequency of insecticide applications. For full details, read “IPM Practices for Selected Pests” in the Orchard Management Guide.
CODLING MOTH:
  • 1st generation: Egg hatch begins at about 350 DD after biofix and is completed by 1050 DD. The most critical period for insecticidal control is from 350 to about 750 DD.
  • 2nd generation: Egg hatch of the second generation can extend from about 1300 to 2600 DD after biofix, but the most critical period for insecticidal control is 1400 to about 2500 DD.
  • 3rd generation: Adults begin to emerge at about 2500 DD after biofix, but the model is less accurate in predicting late-season populations.
ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH:
  • 1st generation: Only one insecticide application between 400 and 500 degree days is usually necessary, as 1st generation egg-laying is usually low on apple.
  • 2nd generation: Effective 1st-generation control may eliminate the need for 2nd-generation control. If trap captures remain high, insecticides may be needed around 1100 to 1400 DD.
  • 3rd generation: Insecticide may be needed at 2200 DD after biofix.
  • 4th generation: Overlapping generations late in the season make it difficult to predict when 4th-generation egg hatch begins, but continuous egg-laying can occur from August through October. Use traps to determine the need for further insecticide applications.
 TUFTED APPLE BUD MOTH:
  • 1st generation: One well-timed insecticide application between 800 and 1200 DD after biofix will often eliminate the need for further control of TABM.
  • 2nd generation: Only if trap captures exceed 25 moths per trap by 2600 DD is an insecticide application recommended. NOTE: Insecticides targeting 2nd generation TABM are usually not necessary if 1st generation populations were successfully controlled.

2016 Pest Trends (click to enlarge)

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